Enter Formosa and Asian subterranean termitesWell, times have changed. Since the 1980s and 90s, several invasive termite species are, as the University of Florida (UF) reported, "on track to infest over half the structures in South Florida by 2040." It's a sobering thought but these aggressive termites are voracious eaters on a mission to multiply. South Florida does have its own native subterranean termite species but the invasive Formosan and Asian subterranean termites leave those guys in the sawdust, building larger colonies, with millions instead of a few thousand members.
Invasive subterranean termites were most likely introduced to the US via shipping containers
Formosan subterranean termites: Coptotermes formosanus, the most widely distributed termite of economic concern gets its name from an early 1900 description of this species in Taiwan but is thought to be endemic to southern China. Reports point to accounts of Formosan termites in Japan before the 1800s and in Hawaii during the late 1800s. In the 1950s, reports of Formosans in South Africa were soon followed in the 1960s by instances in Texas, Louisiana, and South Carolina. Then, in 1980, a well-established colony was discovered in a condominium in Hallandale, Florida. Today, Formosan termites can be found in almost every urban area in Florida including Miami-Dade, Broward and Palm Beach Counties, according to the UF Entomology Department.
Asian subterranean termites: Coptotermes gestroi, similar to the Formosan termite is endemic to southeast Asia. Collected in 1932 in the Pacific, on the Marquesas Islands, as well as in the Indian Ocean's Mauritius and Reunion Islands, in 1936 and 1957, respectively, Asian subterranean termites were first reported in Brazil in 1923 and in Barbados in 1937. Recently collected in West Indian islands, the list of Asian termite locations include all major islands in the Caribbean, the Bahamas, the US Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Cuba and southern Mexico. In 1996, Asian subterranean termites made landfall in the continental US in a storefront and church in Miami. 1999 found an Asian subterranean termite infestation in a Key West home.
Both Formosan and Asian subterranean termites are established in Broward and Miami-Dade Counties today, making these locations the only place in the world where these species overlap territories. Due to warmer temps, both species are swarming at the same time, leading UF researchers to keep a lookout for a new hybrid super-species.
Identifying subterranean termites
Native subterranean termites - Averaging 0.3 inches in length, including wings with dark brown bodies, native subterranean termite alates generally swarm February through March, usually after a rainstorm in the morning or around dusk.
Asian subterranean termites - About ½ inch in length, yellowish-brown in color with hairs on their wings, Asian subterranean termite alates swarm February to April.
Formosan subterranean termites - Yellowish-brown bodies with small hairs on their wings, Formosan termite alates, range in size from about ½ inch to a little over a ½ inch. Swarming occurs April to July beginning at dusk on calm and humid evenings.
Formosan and Asian swarms can be distinguished from native subterranean termites by the massive number of alates in prenuptial flight. The soldiers of both Formosan and Asian subterraneans feature a large forehead opening, known as a fontanelle, thought to be used for spraying a sticky substance to fight off predators.